Philosophy

Major


Minor:


The objective of the philosophy major program is to provide students with the opportunity to understand contemporary philosophy in view of the history of philosophy. Students majoring in philosophy must successfully complete a minimum of 37 semester hours. The philosophy major program is also offered in India in conjunction with the Marianists. Consult the department chairperson for further information.

A minor in philosophy consists of 18 semester hours.


Faculty

John Inglis, Chairperson
Distinguished Service Professor: Johnson
Professors Emeriti: Fischer, Johnson, Kunkel, Quinn, Richards, Ulrich, Zembaty
Professors: Benson, DesAutels, Fouke, Inglis, Kebede, Poe, Tibbetts
Associate Professors: Gabbe, James, Mosser, Paslaru, Payne, Whisnant
Assistant Professors: Bein, Bresnahan, Cheung, Mesami, Velasquez
Lecturers: Dunham, Florek, Marvin
 

Bachelor of Arts, Philosophy (PHL) minimum 124 hours

Common Academic Program (CAP)
*credit hours will vary depending on courses selected
First-Year Humanities Commons 112
West and the World
Introduction to Religious and Theological Studies
Intro To Philosophy
Writing Seminar I 2
Second-Year Writing Seminar 30-3
Writing Seminar II
Oral Communication3
Principles of Oral Communication
Mathematics3
Social Science3
Social Science Integrated
Arts3
Natural Sciences 47
Crossing Boundariesvariable credit
Faith Traditions
Practical Ethical Action
Inquiry
Integrative
Advanced Studyvariable credit
Philosophy and/or Religious Studies
Historical Studies
Diversity and Social Justice3
Major Capstone0-3
1

Completed with ASI 110 and ASI 120.

2

Or ENG 100A and ENG 100B, or ENG 200H, by placement.

3

Completed with ENG 200H or ASI 120.

4

Must include two different disciplines and accompanying lab.


Liberal Studies Curriculum
Creative and Performing Arts (May include CAP Arts)3
L2 Proficiency (Proficiency in a language other than English)0-11
Literature (May include CAP Components)3
Mathematics, excluding MTH 205 (Satisfies CAP Mathematics)3
Natural Sciences (Satisfies CAP Natural Science)11
Social Sciences (Includes CAP Social Science)12

Major Requirements 1, 237
PHL 103Intro To Philosophy3-7
or ASI 120 The Development of Western Culture in a Global Context
PHL 240Research Methodologies & Technologies1
PHL 301Practical Logic 33
or PHL 302 Symbolic Logic
PHL 350Classical Greek Philosophy3
PHL 352Modern Philosophy3
PHL 375Ethical Theory3
Select two seminars from: (Satisfies CAP Major Capstone)6
Seminar - Advanced Problems in Philosophy
Seminar - Individual Philosophers
Seminar - Contemporary Epistemology
Seminar - Contemporary Ethics
Seminar - Contemporary Metaphysics
Select one track from:
Ethics and Social Justice 15
Select two courses from:
Philosophy & Women
Social Philosophy
Ethics
Business Ethics
Philosophy of Law
Medical Ethics
Engineering Ethics
Ethics & Modern War
Family Ethics
Information Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Philosophy of Peace
Philosophy of Punishment
Radical Philosophy
Marxist Philosophy
Race, Gender and Philosophy
Political Philosophy
Philosophy & Human Rights
Values & Economics
Philosophy & Cultural Diversity
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
History of Philosophy15
Select two courses from:
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
Kant & Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
Twentieth-Century Philosophy
Philosophies of Change in U.S. History
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
Science, Technology, and Values15
Philosophy of Science
Select one course from:
Philosophy of Knowledge
Medical Ethics
Engineering Ethics
Information Ethics
Environmental Ethics
Science, Objectivity & Values
Technology & Values
Philosophy & Cognitive Science
Philosophy & Ecology
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
Religion, Mind, and Metaphysics 15
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Religion
Select one course from:
Philosophy of Mind
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
Asian Philosophy
Christian Philosophy
Existentialism
Islamic Philosophy & Culture
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
Culture and Human Diversity15
Select two courses from:
Philosophy & Women
Asian Philosophy
Philosophies of Change in U.S. History
African Philosophy
Race, Gender and Philosophy
Islamic Philosophy & Culture
Philosophy & Cultural Diversity
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
Arts and Human Expression15
Select two courses from:
Philosophy of Art
Philosophy & Literature
Philosophy & Film
Philosophy of Music
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy electives (9 hours)
Self-Designed15
Philosophy electives (15 hours)

Breadth
ASI 150Introduction to the University Experience1
Total Hours to total at least124

1

 Includes CAP Components

2

 PHL courses are not applicable to CAP Advanced Studies.

3

 Students who anticipate graduate work in philosophy are advised to take PHL 302.


Minor in Philosophy (PHL)

Philosophy
PHL 103Intro To Philosophy3
PHL 301Practical Logic3
or PHL 302 Symbolic Logic
Select one course from:3
Classical Greek Philosophy
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
Modern Philosophy
Kant & Nineteenth-Century Philosophy
Twentieth-Century Philosophy
Select one PHL seminar (400 level)3
Select two PHL courses6
Total Hours18
First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ASI 1501ASI 1208
ASI 1107Language 1414
CMM 100 (CAP Communication)3MTH (CAP Mathematics)3
Language 1014 
 15 15
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
SSC 200 (CAP Social Science)3PHL 2401
PHL 301 or 3023PHL 3503
INSS (CAP Natural Science)4PHL 3523
Literature3CAP Arts3
Language 201 or contextual course3INSS (CAP Natural Science)3
 Social Science3
 16 16
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
PHL 3753Adv HST3
Creative & Performing Arts3Adv REL (CAP Faith Trad)3
INSS (CAP Inquiry)4PHL Major Track3
PHL Major Track3PHL Major Track3
Social Science3Social Science3
 16 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
Adv REL3Diversity and Social Justice3
CAP Integrative3PHL Major Track3
PHL Seminar (Capstone)3PHL Seminar (Capstone)3
PHL Major Track3General elective3
General elective3General elective3
General elective1 
 16 15
Total credit hours: 124

Courses

PHL 103. Introduction to Philosophy. 3 Hours

Introduction to philosophical reflection and study of some central philosophical questions in the Western intellectual tradition, including questions of ethics, human knowledge, and metaphysics. Readings from major figures in the history of philosophy such as Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Descartes, Hume, and Kant.

PHL 240. Research Methodologies & Technologies. 1 Hour

Development of research skills appropriate for the major. Students submit papers carefully selected from written work required for major classes. Required for all Philosophy majors. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 301. Practical Logic. 3 Hours

Introduction to the principles of correct reasoning; techniques for the evaluation of arguments; common fallacies in argumentation; applications to current issues in ethics and other areas.

PHL 302. Symbolic Logic. 3 Hours

Concentrated study of the valid forms of deductive argument and proof in propositional logic and in predicate logic; study of formal systems and of logic and language. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 304. Philosophy of Human Nature. 3 Hours

Examination of humanist, religious and scientific perspectives regarding what defines our 'human nature?' These perspectives include: Western and non-Western philosophical and spiritual traditions, social psychology, cultural anthropology, and evolutionary biology. Throughout the focus is on primary-source texts rather than on summaries and surveys. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 306. Philosophy of Knowledge. 3 Hours

Various criteria, origins, and definitions of knowledge proposed by common sense, science, philosophy, and mysticism; questions of evidence, consistency, and validity pertaining to the problem of truth and belief. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 307. Philosophy & Women. 3 Hours

Issues and problems related to feminist analysis of society and its ideals, such as equal opportunity, sex roles and gender, reverse discrimination, violence, and language. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 308. Metaphysics. 3 Hours

Issues and problems under such topics as appearance and reality; universals; relations of mind and matter; the nature of persons and personal identity; causality; freedom and determination. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 309. Philosophy of Mind. 3 Hours

An analysis of the concept of mind and related issues such as Descartes' mind-body dualism and various responses; the nature of human agency, self-deception; and the rationality of emotions. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 310. Social Philosophy. 3 Hours

The concepts of liberty, justice, and equality as they relate to social problems such as autonomy, responsibility, privacy, common good, power, economic justice, and discrimination. This course also addresses how the obstacles to justice can be overcome. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or equivalent.

PHL 311. Philosophy of Religion. 3 Hours

The main issues involved in religious belief and practice, such as the relationship between reason and revelation; critical presentation of views of main writers in the field. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 312. Ethics. 3 Hours

Various types of moral and ethical theory in the Western tradition and major problems such as the extent of human responsibility and the conditions for making ethical judgments. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 313. Business Ethics. 3 Hours

Review of major ethical theories and concepts such as justice, human flourishing, rights, virtues, common good, and examination of their implications for today's business world. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or equivalent.

PHL 314. Philosophy of Law. 3 Hours

This is a course in the philosophy of law and jurisprudence that is designed for upper-level work in law, philosophy and law-related fields. The course includes the topics of rule of law, natural law theory, critical approaches to law, international law and human rights, distributive justice and material equality, privacy and sexual equality, and the function and limits of punishment. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 315. Medical Ethics. 3 Hours

Introduction to ethics in general and inquiry into the main ethical problems tied to medical practice and research, and the moral approaches for resolving them. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 316. Engineering Ethics. 3 Hours

Introduction to ethical issues in engineering by developing theories of moral justification and codes of ethics for engineers, and by applying these theories and codes to moral issues in engineering. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 317. Ethics & Modern War. 3 Hours

Study in applied ethics focusing on the implications of power politics and militarism; various ethical approaches used to evaluate wars, terrorism and violence; and an overview of some alternatives to war. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 318. Family Ethics. 3 Hours

Introduction to the development of the concept of a family in the tradition of Western philosophy and the philosophic analysis of contemporary ethical problems in marriage and in parenthood. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 319. Information Ethics. 3 Hours

Examination of ethical principles, codes, cases, incidents, and issues in the design, implementation, and use of computerized information systems. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 320. Philosophy of Art. 3 Hours

This course will critically evaluate advanced philosophical and art-historical texts pertaining to understanding and appreciating such arts as painting, sculpture, architecture, comedy, literature, theatre, music, dance, and street art. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 321. Environmental Ethics. 3 Hours

Study of the principal ethical perspectives on the treatment of animals and nature including such issues as agriculture, energy, pollution, and economics; assessment of political responses to current environmental problems. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 322. Philosophy and Theatre/Dance: Performing Human Identity. 3 Hours

An interdisciplinary and advanced philosophy course with two components: 1) theoretical, focusing on the philosophy of dance or theatre and the philosophy of human identity, and 2) dance or theatre, where students will learn to use dance or theatre to express personal identity. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 323. Philosophy & Literature. 3 Hours

Critical examination of philosophical concepts in selected literary masterpieces, ancient and modern. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 324. Philosophy & Film. 3 Hours

This course will critically evaluate texts in philosophy, film criticism, popular culture and other areas that are related to the philosophical study of movies and film. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 325. Philosophy of Music. 3 Hours

Examination of theories on the meaning of music; experiencing music as composer, performer, and listener; aesthetic criteria; moral effect of music. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 327. Philosophy of Peace. 3 Hours

Examination of human violence and ethical justifications for war and exploration of resolutions for human conflict in processes such as pacifism, peacemaking, democratic world governance, nonviolent caring, and a sustainable economy. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 328. Philosophy of Punishment. 3 Hours

Critical examination of punishment, through an analysis of various forms of punishment and what they imply about human nature, power, social norms, and moral principles. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 330. Philosophy of Science. 3 Hours

Critical examination of the underpinnings of scientific knowledge, and how it differs from other systems of belief and knowledge, through an analysis and evaluation of various scientific concepts such as scientific laws, explanation, observation, and theory, with an exploration of the methods, presuppositions, and biases of scientific knowledge claims. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 331. Science, Objectivity & Values. 3 Hours

Study of three interrelated issues: the limits of scientific methodology; science as a social institution; and science and human values. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 332. Technology & Values. 3 Hours

Study of the social impact of technology-scientists' responsibility; technological change and social change; the 'technological fix'; democracy and the new technological elite; counter-culture critiques of technology. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 333. Philosophy & Cognitive Science. 3 Hours

Philosophical introduction to recent research in cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience regarding human, animal, and machine intelligence; the relation between mind, brain, and personhood; and the biology of conscious states. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 334. Philosophy & Ecology. 3 Hours

An examination of the epistemological, methodological, ontological, and value issues of ecology, with a focus on how these issues affect the debates in philosophy of science. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 340. Special Problems in Philosophy. 1-3 Hours

Examination of perennial and contemporary problems of philosophy. May be repeated when topic changes. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 345. Philosophy Scholars' Seminar. 3 Hours

Study and seminar discussion of selected major philosophical works and the analysis, interpretation, and criticism of these works. Open by permission only to students in the Berry Scholars Program. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 350. Classical Greek Philosophy. 3 Hours

The Greek origins of Western scientific, philosophical, and political thought; relationships to current thoughts; ideas of the pre-Socratics, Plato, and Aristotle in their cultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 351. Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy. 3 Hours

A critical examination of theological arguments by major thinkers representing the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions in the Middle Ages, with close attention to common philosophical underpinnings, and the cross-fertilization of ideas. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 352. Modern Philosophy. 3 Hours

Survey of developments of Natural Philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and how strands of Christian and Jewish religious traditions influenced the philosophical beginnings of modern science. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 353. Kant & Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. 3 Hours

Development of philosophy beginning with Kant through the nineteenth century including Kant and philosophers such as Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, James, Peirce, and Frege. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 354. Twentieth-Century Philosophy. 3 Hours

Study of some of the major philosophical movements in the twentieth century including phenomenology, existentialism, critical theory (Frankfurt School), hermeneutics, and analytic philosophy. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 355. Asian Philosophy. 3 Hours

Introduction to Asian philosophy through the study of philosophers, texts, philosophical schools and concepts that have their origins in Asia. Comparisons of various Asian philosophies with each other as well as with western traditions. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 356. Christian Philosophy. 3 Hours

An examination of the underlying philosophical issues of selected topics in the Christian faith to deepen the students' understanding of the faith in its historical and intellectual contexts. Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 357. Radical Philosophy. 3 Hours

Study of major attempts to develop a critical understanding of society; analysis of theories such as socialism, anarchism, feminism, critical theory, and critical race theory. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 358. Marxist Philosophy. 3 Hours

Introduction to the thought of Karl Marx through a study of the historical setting of the man and his writings, along with recent interpretations of his thought. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 360. Existentialism. 3 Hours

This course examines the body of philosophic thought known as Existentialism: its genesis within Kierkegaard’s analysis of faith; its reaction to 19th century philosophy; its maturation in 20th century; and its absorption and extension into Christian Existentialism, religious inquiry, the arts, literature, social thinking and freedom movements of today. Primary foci of this course revolve around the themes of Faith as a lived experience, Human Reasoning and the Human Condition, Self and Others, Freedom and Morality. This course directs virtually all of its textual materials and discursive development toward the question "What does it mean to be human?" and in light of that, “What then shall we do?” Prerequisite(s): (ASI 110, ASI 120) or PHL 103.

PHL 361. Philosophies of Change in U.S. History. 3 Hours

Study of philosophies of change emerging within U.S. history. It will examine 1) Philosophies arising from interactions and tensions among Indigenous, European, African, Latin American, and Asian cultural groups, and 2) American Pragmatism as articulating processes of change rather than seeking universal truths. Prerequisite(s): ASI 120 or PHL 103.

PHL 362. Philosophy of Language. 3 Hours

Theories of meaning and reference and their philosophical significance. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 363. African Philosophy. 3 Hours

Introduction to African world views, ethical notions, and social ideas using analytical and comparative approaches; examination of concepts of human diversity and universality; analysis of the transition of traditional African culture to modernity. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 364. Race, Gender and Philosophy. 3 Hours

Investigation of how the intersections of race and gender shape our identity and the organization of local and global spaces. To this end the course considers questions about the metaphysical and epistemological dimensions of raced and gendered identity. Attention will be given to ethical and political analyses of racial patriarchy and in the course students will think through the most effective ways of reaching racial and gender justice. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 365. Islamic Philosophy & Culture. 3 Hours

Examination of selected Islamic thinkers and philosophical traditions, from the period of the Ummayyad Caliphate to the postcolonial era, and their influence on Christian and Jewish thought. Islamic conceptions of law, political society, ethics, hermeneutics, science, revelation, and reality. Special emphasis upon the role of the arts in shaping Islamic philosophy. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 370. Political Philosophy. 3 Hours

The course analyzes the evolution of political theories through a study of representative ancient and modern works of political philosophy. It also studies political changes and contemporary political ideas and practices in relation to diverse cultural contexts. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 371. Philosophy & Human Rights. 3 Hours

Examination of the nature and philosophical foundations of universal moral (human) rights; and application of human rights theory to issues and cases involving civil and political rights, and rights to equality, security, subsistence, education, welfare, employment, and health care. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 372. Values & Economics. 3 Hours

An inquiry into the impact of values and beliefs on the generation of modern economic forces. Analyzing capitalism as a system of validation of beliefs and values, the course relates underdevelopment with the conflict between tradition and modernity. It then reflects on the conditions of change liable to promote global expansion. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 373. Philosophy & Cultural Diversity. 3 Hours

Philosophical investigation into historical, social, and political dimensions of human diversity in its various manifestations. Topics include colonialism, racism, multiculturalism, nationalism, and democracy.

PHL 374. Philosophy and the City. 3 Hours

By studying philosophical questions as they apply to the local community, students will deepen their understanding both of philosophical theory and Dayton. This class may be taken multiple times for credit. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 110 or ASI 120.

PHL 375. Ethical Theory. 3 Hours

An examination of the significant ethical theories offered by historically significant philosophers along with some contemporary critiques of these theories. The theories examined will include virtue, deontological, and utilitarian approaches. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 376. Philosophy & Revolution. 3 Hours

No description available.

PHL 377. Philosophy & Mass Media. 3 Hours

No description available.

PHL 378. The Self Concept: Reality or Social Construct?. 3 Hours

The concept of a ‘self’ is one of the more elusive concepts in reflections on what it means to be human. Starting with (i) the Cartesian model of self as a metaphysically distinct, non­physical entity, the course then explores (ii) Asian (particularly Buddhist) speculations on self as a linguistic fiction. Students are then introduced to (iii) recent cognitive science modeling of self and personal identity as instances of embodied/situated cognition, followed by contributions from the social sciences, including (iv) sociological theories of self as a social construct, as well as (v) clinical case studies of autistic, pathological, and fragmented selves. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 379. Latin American Philosophy. 3 Hours

This course provides background to the history of philosophy that emerges in and from Latin America. Were the Indians human? Did they have souls? When, if at all, is war justified? Why is the U.S. rich and Latin America poor? How can poverty in Latin America be addressed? What could it mean for nations in Latin America to take small steps of self-determination and embark on a path of liberation? These questions and others are addressed by thinking through theory within the Latin American philosophical tradition. In the process students gain a sense of what it's like to philosophize from a Latin American perspective. PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 380. Language & Our World. 3 Hours

No description available.

PHL 381. Sexual Ethics. 3 Hours

This course will cover various philosophical issues in sexual ethics, including the following: the proper meaning and role of sex within human life; the existence and content of any “natural law(s)” governing sexual activity; the relations between sex, love, and marriage; the meaning and value of sexual freedom; the moral status of homosexuality and same-sex marriage; the meaning and importance of sexual consent; sexual objectification; and the commodification of sex and (mostly) women’s bodies in prostitution and pornography. Special attention will be devoted both to Catholic perspectives and to contemporary feminist perspectives on sexual ethics.

PHL 382. Culture, Modernization, and Multiple Modernities. 3 Hours

The course surveys representative and contending theories of modernization with the view of unraveling the role of values and beliefs in the modernization process. It reexamines the role of culture in light of the emergence of a globalized world and the associated rise of diverse modernities. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 383. Ethics of Scientific Research. 3 Hours

Inquiry into the main ethical problems of scientific research and the moral principles for resolving them. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 440. Seminar - Advanced Problems in Philosophy. 3 Hours

Detailed examination of some of the more technical problems of philosophy as well as those problems that arise in interdisciplinary settings upon which philosophers have brought their technical skills to bear. May be repeated when topic varies. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 451. Seminar - Individual Philosophers. 3 Hours

Detailed examination of the thought of an individual philosopher (e.g., Aquinas, Kant, Rawls, Quine) who is of sufficient importance to warrant special study. May be repeated when topic varies. Prerequisite(s):PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 461. Seminar - Contemporary Epistemology. 3 Hours

Study of recent philosophical work in the theory of knowledge inclusive of scepticism, knowledge and belief, evidence and justification, theories of perception and knowledge, human interests and valuation. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 462. Seminar - Contemporary Ethics. 3 Hours

Study of recent philosophical work in ethics inclusive of an analysis of ethical concepts, theories of normative ethics, theories of human action, and moral justification. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 463. Seminar - Contemporary Metaphysics. 3 Hours

Study of recent work in metaphysics inclusive of the nature of metaphysics, causality, free will and determinism, personal identity and the theory of mind and body. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent.

PHL 477. Honors Thesis Project. 3 Hours

First of two courses leading to the selection, design, investigation, and completion of an independent, original Honors Thesis project under the guidance of a faculty research advisor. Restricted to students in the University Honors Program with permission of the program director and department chairperson. Students pursuing an interdisciplinary thesis topic may register for three semester hours each in two separate disciplines in consultation with the department chairpersons. Prerequisite(s): Approval of University Honors Program.

PHL 478. Honors Thesis Project. 3 Hours

Second of two courses leading to the selection, design, investigation, and completion of an independent, original Honors Thesis project under the guidance of a faculty research advisor. Restricted to students in the University Honors Program with permission of the program director and department chairperson. Students pursuing an interdisciplinary thesis topic may register for three semester hours each in two separate disciplines in consultation with the department chairpersons. Prerequisite(s): Approved 477; approval of University Honors Program.

PHL 490. Directed Readings. 1-4 Hours

Guided independent study primarily for philosophy majors but open to students who have completed twelve semester hours in philosophy. Normally three semester hours but in certain cases the chairperson may approve one, two, or four semester hours. May be repeated when topic changes. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent; permission of department chairperson and instructor.

PHL 492. Directed Research. 3 Hours

Faculty-directed research for philosophy majors who have completed all 300-level requirements and at least one 400-level seminar. Students will write a substantial paper in relation to this research. Prerequisite(s):PHL 103 or ASI 120 or equivalent; permission of department chairperson and instructor.

PHL 495. Internship. 1-3 Hours

Supervised practical and professional experience related to philosophy for philosophy majors who have completed prescribed course work. May be repeated to a maximum of three semester hours. Grading Option Two only. Prerequisite(s): PHL 103 or ASI 120, PHL 302, PHL 350, PHL 352; one 400-level seminar; permission of department chairperson.